Site type

Location

Coordinates (degrees)
026.796° S, 027.369° E
Coordinates (DMS)
026° 47' 00" E, 027° 22' 00" S
Country (ISO 3166)
South Africa (ZA)

radiocarbon date Radiocarbon dates (16)

Lab ID Context Material Taxon Method Uncalibrated age Calibrated age References
Pta-1641 CD 1 NA conventional 14C 170±50 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-1643 CD 1 NA conventional 14C 155±45 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2166 CD 4 NA conventional 14C 350±30 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2168 CD 2 NA conventional 14C 130±70 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2170 CD 5 NA conventional 14C 140±40 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2172 CD 6 NA conventional 14C 160±40 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2366 CD 6 NA conventional 14C 110±50 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-2380 CD 4 NA conventional 14C 300±50 BP taylor1979wst
Pta-1641 NA NA 170±50 BP Sealy JC van der Merwe NJ. 1988. Social spatial and chronological patterning in marine food use as determined by d13 C measurements of Holocene human skeletons from the south-western Cape. World Archaeology 20(1):87–102. Bird et al. 2022
Pta-1643 NA NA 155±45 BP Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80 Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2166 NA NA 350±30 BP Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129. Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2168 NA NA 130±70 BP Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129. Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2170 NA NA 140±40 BP Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129. Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2172 NA NA 160±40 BP Smith AB and Ripp MR. 1978. An archaeological reconnaissance of the Doorn/Tanqua Karoo.The South African Archaeological Bulletin 33 (128):118-133. Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2366 NA NA 110±50 BP Chapple 2019 Bird et al. 2022
Pta-2380 NA NA 300±50 BP Maggs T. 1984. Ndondondwane: a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the lower Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum26(1) pp.71-93. Bird et al. 2022

typological date Typological dates (16)

Classification Estimated age References
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA
Iron Age NA taylor1979wst
NA NA

Bibliographic reference Bibliographic references

@misc{taylor1979wst,
  
}
@misc{Sealy JC van der Merwe NJ. 1988. Social spatial and chronological patterning in marine food use as determined by d13 C measurements of Holocene human skeletons from the south-western Cape. World Archaeology 20(1):87–102.,
  
}
@misc{Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80,
  
}
@misc{Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129.,
  
}
@misc{Smith AB and Ripp MR. 1978. An archaeological reconnaissance of the Doorn/Tanqua Karoo.The South African Archaeological Bulletin 33 (128):118-133.,
  
}
@dataset{IRDD,
  title = {Catalogue of Radiocarbon Determinations & Dendrochronology Dates (August 2019 Release)},
  author = {Chapple, Robert M},
  date = {2019},
  publisher = {Oculus Obscura Press},
  location = {Belfast},
  url = {https://sites.google.com/site/chapplearchaeology/irish-radiocarbon-dendrochronological-dates}
}
@misc{Maggs T. 1984. Ndondondwane: a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the lower Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum26(1) pp.71-93.,
  
}
@misc{SARD,
  url = {https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database},
  note = { Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}
}
@article{p3k14c,
  title = {P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates},
  author = {Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth, Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman, Jacob},
  year = {2022},
  month = {jan},
  journal = {Scientific Data},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  issn = {2052-4463},
  doi = {10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7},
  abstract = {Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale, comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.},
  copyright = {2022 The Author(s)},
  langid = {english},
  keywords = {Archaeology,Chemistry},
  month_numeric = {1}
}
{"bibtex_key":"taylor1979wst","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Sealy JC van der Merwe NJ. 1988. Social spatial and chronological patterning in marine food use as determined by d13 C measurements of Holocene human skeletons from the south-western Cape. World Archaeology 20(1):87–102.","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129.","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Smith AB and Ripp MR. 1978. An archaeological reconnaissance of the Doorn/Tanqua Karoo.The South African Archaeological Bulletin 33 (128):118-133.","bibtex_type":"misc"}[{"bibtex_key":"IRDD","bibtex_type":"dataset","title":"{Catalogue of Radiocarbon Determinations & Dendrochronology Dates (August 2019 Release)}","author":"{Chapple, Robert M}","date":"{2019}","publisher":"{Oculus Obscura Press}","location":"{Belfast}","url":"{https://sites.google.com/site/chapplearchaeology/irish-radiocarbon-dendrochronological-dates}"}]{"bibtex_key":"Maggs T. 1984. Ndondondwane: a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age site on the lower Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum26(1) pp.71-93.","bibtex_type":"misc"}[{"bibtex_key":"SARD","bibtex_type":"misc","url":"{https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database}","note":"{ Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}"}][{"bibtex_key":"p3k14c","bibtex_type":"article","title":"{P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates}","author":"{Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth, Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman, Jacob}","year":"{2022}","month":"{jan}","journal":"{Scientific Data}","volume":"{9}","number":"{1}","pages":"{27}","publisher":"{Nature Publishing Group}","issn":"{2052-4463}","doi":"{10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7}","abstract":"{Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale, comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.}","copyright":"{2022 The Author(s)}","langid":"{english}","keywords":"{Archaeology,Chemistry}","month_numeric":"{1}"}]
---
:bibtex_key: taylor1979wst
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Sealy JC van der Merwe NJ. 1988. Social spatial and chronological patterning
  in marine food use as determined by d13 C measurements of Holocene human skeletons
  from the south-western Cape. World Archaeology 20(1):87–102.
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: 'Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon
  23: 43-80'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: 'Taylor M.O.V. 1979. Wildebeestfontein: a late Iron Age site in the southeast
  Transvaal.Goodwin Series (3) pp.120-129.'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Smith AB and Ripp MR. 1978. An archaeological reconnaissance of the Doorn/Tanqua
  Karoo.The South African Archaeological Bulletin 33 (128):118-133.
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
- :bibtex_key: IRDD
  :bibtex_type: :dataset
  :title: "{Catalogue of Radiocarbon Determinations & Dendrochronology Dates (August
    2019 Release)}"
  :author: "{Chapple, Robert M}"
  :date: "{2019}"
  :publisher: "{Oculus Obscura Press}"
  :location: "{Belfast}"
  :url: "{https://sites.google.com/site/chapplearchaeology/irish-radiocarbon-dendrochronological-dates}"
---
:bibtex_key: 'Maggs T. 1984. Ndondondwane: a preliminary report on an Early Iron Age
  site on the lower Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum26(1) pp.71-93.'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
- :bibtex_key: SARD
  :bibtex_type: :misc
  :url: "{https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database}"
  :note: "{ Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon
    database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}"
---
- :bibtex_key: p3k14c
  :bibtex_type: :article
  :title: "{P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates}"
  :author: "{Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick
    and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson
    Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth,
    Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline
    and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman,
    Jacob}"
  :year: "{2022}"
  :month: "{jan}"
  :journal: "{Scientific Data}"
  :volume: "{9}"
  :number: "{1}"
  :pages: "{27}"
  :publisher: "{Nature Publishing Group}"
  :issn: "{2052-4463}"
  :doi: "{10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7}"
  :abstract: "{Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model
    prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent
    projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple
    regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative
    research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems
    across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different
    sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale,
    comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental
    data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database
    composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized
    sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological
    radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types
    of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct
    two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This
    database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian
    modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.}"
  :copyright: "{2022 The Author(s)}"
  :langid: "{english}"
  :keywords: "{Archaeology,Chemistry}"
  :month_numeric: "{1}"

Changelog