Site type

Location

Coordinates (degrees)
025.769° S, 027.835° E
Coordinates (DMS)
025° 46' 00" E, 027° 50' 00" S
Country (ISO 3166)
South Africa (ZA)

radiocarbon date Radiocarbon dates (31)

Lab ID Context Material Taxon Method Uncalibrated age Calibrated age References
Fra-82 Mound 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1450±100 BP protsch1984frd
Fra-82 charcoal NA NA 1450±100 BP Protsch R. and Weninger B. 1984. Frankfurt radiocarbon dates I.Radiocarbon26(2) pp.185-195. Bird et al. 2022
Fra-84 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 290±100 BP protsch1984frd
Fra-84 charcoal NA NA 290±100 BP Protsch R. and Weninger B. 1984. Frankfurt radiocarbon dates I.Radiocarbon26(2) pp.185-195. Bird et al. 2022
Fra-85 charcoal NA NA 1360±100 BP Spennemann 1984 143 Bird et al. 2022
Fra-85 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1360±100 BP protsch1984frd
Fra-88 charcoal NA NA 1320±100 BP Yerkes 2009 Bird et al. 2022
Fra-88 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1320±100 BP protsch1984frd
KN-2641 charcoal NA NA 1350±80 BP Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416. Bird et al. 2022
KN-2641 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1350±80 BP mason1981esb
KN-2642 charcoal NA NA 330±50 BP Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416. Bird et al. 2022
KN-2642 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 330±50 BP mason1981esb
KN-2643 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1600±50 BP mason1981esb
KN-2643 charcoal NA NA 1600±50 BP Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416. Bird et al. 2022
KN-2644 charcoal NA NA 1570±65 BP Breunig 1987 174 Bird et al. 2022
KN-2644 Hut 24/73 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1570±65 BP mason1981esb
Pta-1343 bone NA NA 1300±40 BP Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80 Bird et al. 2022
Pta-1343 Hut 24/73 bone NA conventional 14C 1300±40 BP mason1981esb
Pta-1375 charcoal NA conventional 14C 1540±40 BP huffman2007h
Pta-1375 charcoal NA NA 1540±40 BP Maggs TM and Ward V. 1980. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age site on the Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum24 pp.35-70. Bird et al. 2022

typological date Typological dates (34)

Classification Estimated age References
Iron Age NA protsch1984frd
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA protsch1984frd
Later Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA protsch1984frd
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA protsch1984frd
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA mason1981esb
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA mason1981esb
Later Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA mason1981esb
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA mason1981esb
Early Iron Age NA NA
Iron Age NA mason1981esb
NA NA
Iron Age NA huffman2007h
Early Iron Age NA NA

Bibliographic reference Bibliographic references

@misc{protsch1984frd,
  
}
@misc{mason1981esb,
  
}
@misc{huffman2007h,
  
}
@misc{Protsch R. and Weninger B. 1984. Frankfurt radiocarbon dates I.Radiocarbon26(2) pp.185-195.,
  
}
@misc{Spennemann 1984 143,
  
}
@misc{Yerkes 2009,
  
}
@misc{Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416.,
  
}
@misc{Breunig 1987 174,
  
}
@misc{Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80,
  
}
@misc{Maggs TM and Ward V. 1980. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age site on the Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum24 pp.35-70.,
  
}
@misc{Weißhaar 1989,
  
}
@misc{BERRY AND BERRY 1986; Benedict and Olson 1978; Tucek 1977: 250,
  
}
@misc{Ericson 1977,
  
}
@misc{SARD,
  url = {https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database},
  note = { Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}
}
@article{p3k14c,
  title = {P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates},
  author = {Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth, Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman, Jacob},
  year = {2022},
  month = {jan},
  journal = {Scientific Data},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27},
  publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
  issn = {2052-4463},
  doi = {10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7},
  abstract = {Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale, comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.},
  copyright = {2022 The Author(s)},
  langid = {english},
  keywords = {Archaeology,Chemistry},
  month_numeric = {1}
}
{"bibtex_key":"protsch1984frd","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"mason1981esb","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"huffman2007h","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Protsch R. and Weninger B. 1984. Frankfurt radiocarbon dates I.Radiocarbon26(2) pp.185-195.","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Spennemann 1984 143","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Yerkes 2009","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416.","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Breunig 1987 174","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon 23: 43-80","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Maggs TM and Ward V. 1980. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age site on the Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum24 pp.35-70.","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Wei√ühaar 1989","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"BERRY AND BERRY 1986; Benedict and Olson 1978; Tucek 1977: 250","bibtex_type":"misc"}{"bibtex_key":"Ericson 1977","bibtex_type":"misc"}[{"bibtex_key":"SARD","bibtex_type":"misc","url":"{https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database}","note":"{ Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}"}][{"bibtex_key":"p3k14c","bibtex_type":"article","title":"{P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates}","author":"{Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth, Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman, Jacob}","year":"{2022}","month":"{jan}","journal":"{Scientific Data}","volume":"{9}","number":"{1}","pages":"{27}","publisher":"{Nature Publishing Group}","issn":"{2052-4463}","doi":"{10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7}","abstract":"{Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale, comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.}","copyright":"{2022 The Author(s)}","langid":"{english}","keywords":"{Archaeology,Chemistry}","month_numeric":"{1}"}]
---
:bibtex_key: protsch1984frd
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: mason1981esb
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: huffman2007h
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Protsch R. and Weninger B. 1984. Frankfurt radiocarbon dates I.Radiocarbon26(2)
  pp.185-195.
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Spennemann 1984 143
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Yerkes 2009
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Mason R.J. 1981. Early Iron Age settlement at Broederstroom 24/73 Transvaal
  South Africa.South African Journal of Science77(9) pp.401-416.
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Breunig 1987 174
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: 'Vogel JC and Visser E. 1981. Pretoria Radiocarbon dates II. Radiocarbon
  23: 43-80'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: 'Maggs TM and Ward V. 1980. Driel Shelter: rescue at a Late Stone Age
  site on the Tugela River.Annals of the Natal Museum24 pp.35-70.'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Weißhaar 1989
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: 'BERRY AND BERRY 1986; Benedict and Olson 1978; Tucek 1977: 250'
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
:bibtex_key: Ericson 1977
:bibtex_type: :misc
---
- :bibtex_key: SARD
  :bibtex_type: :misc
  :url: "{https://github.com/emmaloftus/Southern-African-Radiocarbon-Database}"
  :note: "{ Loftus, E., Mitchell, P., & Ramsey, C. (2019). An archaeological radiocarbon
    database for southern Africa. Antiquity, 93(370), 870-885. doi:10.15184/aqy.2019.75}"
---
- :bibtex_key: p3k14c
  :bibtex_type: :article
  :title: "{P3k14c, a Synthetic Global Database of Archaeological Radiocarbon Dates}"
  :author: "{Bird, Darcy and Miranda, Lux and Vander Linden, Marc and Robinson, Erick
    and Bocinsky, R. Kyle and Nicholson, Chris and Capriles, José M. and Finley, Judson
    Byrd and Gayo, Eugenia M. and Gil, Adolfo and d’Alpoim Guedes, Jade and Hoggarth,
    Julie A. and Kay, Andrea and Loftus, Emma and Lombardo, Umberto and Mackie, Madeline
    and Palmisano, Alessio and Solheim, Steinar and Kelly, Robert L. and Freeman,
    Jacob}"
  :year: "{2022}"
  :month: "{jan}"
  :journal: "{Scientific Data}"
  :volume: "{9}"
  :number: "{1}"
  :pages: "{27}"
  :publisher: "{Nature Publishing Group}"
  :issn: "{2052-4463}"
  :doi: "{10.1038/s41597-022-01118-7}"
  :abstract: "{Archaeologists increasingly use large radiocarbon databases to model
    prehistoric human demography (also termed paleo-demography). Numerous independent
    projects, funded over the past decade, have assembled such databases from multiple
    regions of the world. These data provide unprecedented potential for comparative
    research on human population ecology and the evolution of social-ecological systems
    across the Earth. However, these databases have been developed using different
    sample selection criteria, which has resulted in interoperability issues for global-scale,
    comparative paleo-demographic research and integration with paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental
    data. We present a synthetic, global-scale archaeological radiocarbon database
    composed of 180,070 radiocarbon dates that have been cleaned according to a standardized
    sample selection criteria. This database increases the reusability of archaeological
    radiocarbon data and streamlines quality control assessments for various types
    of paleo-demographic research. As part of an assessment of data quality, we conduct
    two analyses of sampling bias in the global database at multiple scales. This
    database is ideal for paleo-demographic research focused on dates-as-data, bayesian
    modeling, or summed probability distribution methodologies.}"
  :copyright: "{2022 The Author(s)}"
  :langid: "{english}"
  :keywords: "{Archaeology,Chemistry}"
  :month_numeric: "{1}"

Changelog